The International Society for Chronobiology was founded in 1937 in Ronneby, Sweden, under the name of "Societas pro Studio Rhythymi Biologici." Its name was changed to the current "International Society for Chronobiology" in 1971 at the X International Conference in Little Rock, Arkansas, USA. The present constitution was adopted in 1979 at the XIV Conference in Hannover, Germany.
The aims of the Society are:
The Society will facilitate scientific meetings, teaching sessions and other activities worldwide. Under the broad umbrella of the Society, national societies of chronobiology have been established in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and South America. As a result of this overall effort, chronobiology is now a recognized scientific and medical discipline. There are now chairs of chronobiology in several universities as well as an increasing number of centers, institutes and other organizations dedicated to research in chronobiology or one of its subfields. The Society currently has members in over 40 different countries.
The Society holds a biennial International Conference which provides members and interested colleagues with the opportunity to present original research and with a forum for discussions of both fundamental and applied chronobiology. The Society also co-sponsors the biennial International Conference of Chronobiology and Chronopharmacology and meetings of other scientific/medical groups with a interest in chronobiology or cognate areas.
The Society publishes the bimonthly journal, Chronobiology International, which is listed or abstracted in the following: Index Medicus, Current Contents, Biological Rhythms, Cambridge Science Abstracts and SCISEARCH & BIOS.
Society members who have distinguished themselves in chronobiological research may be elected as "Honorary Members." This is the highest recognition given by the Society for outstanding contributions to chronobiology. The Society Honorary Members are listed below. (*Deceased)
Section 1. The name of the society shall be the "International Society for Chronobiology," hereafter called the Society.
Section 2. The purpose of the Society shall be:
Section 3. The operational year for the Society shall start on the first day of July and end the 30th of June the following year.
Section 1. The officers of the Society shall consist of a President; a First Vice President. a Second Vice President; a Secretary, who shall act also as Treasurer; a President-Elect, who shall serve for the two years between his election and assumption of office as President; and a President Emeritus, who shall serve on the Board in a non-voting capacity for two years following his term of office as President. The term of the President shall be for four years. ; each President, however, will have served on the Board as President-Elect for two years preceding his presidency and will continue to serve as President-Emeritus for two years following his active presidency. A Vice President shall be elected for four years. serving as Second Vice President for the first two years and as First Vice President for the second two years. The Secretary-Treasurer shall be elected for a term of 10 years. will bring to the board names of persons the person to serve as the secretary will be In case of the absence of the President and both Vice Presidents. in order of seniority shall preside. In addition, Six to twelve society members will be elected as board members.
Section 2. Election procedure. At the biennial meeting preceding an election, the President shall name a Nominating Committee of five members. This committee will make its nominations to the President not less than six months before the meeting at which the next election is to take place. The Nominating Committee shall submit two names for each office. Each nominee must have agreed to serve if elected.
The Secretary shall prepare a printed ballot bearing all names submitted by the Nominating Committee and provide space for write-in candidates for each office. This ballot is to be mailed to all members with the call for papers and advance notice of the next biennial meeting of the Society. Each member wishing to vote shall return his marked ballot to the Secretary in an envelope postmarked no later than 30 days preceding the Biennial Business Meeting.
The Secretary will count and record the vote with the aid and certification of two other members of the Society.
Any candidate receiving a majority of votes cast shall be declared elected. In case of a tie or lack of a majority for any office, the two candidates with the most votes shall be voted on by ballot at the biennial meeting; the one receiving the greater number of votes shall be declared elected.
The management of the affairs of the Society shall be delegated to the Board consisting of up to fourteen directors, four to six of whom are the officers and eight others elected as provided hereinafter. Two of these directors of the Board shall be elected at each biennial meeting to serve a term of eight years; and, so far as possible, the Nominating Committee shall take into consideration the geographic distribution of the membership of the Society when making the recommendations. At the end of two years, the Second Vice President shall become the First Vice President and a new Second Vice President will be elected from the membership. Should any member of the board be unable to complete his/her term of office, the board shall have the power to appoint a replacement from the membership, who will serve the remainder of the term. The Society shall be incorporated at the place of residence of the Secretary-Treasurer.
The Society shall meet at least every second year if possible, the time and place to be determined by the Board. Any member of the Society may suggest a suitable meeting place.
The Reports of the Conferences are to be published, if possible., and shall be edited by a Board appointed at each conference. English is to be used in all official circulars and reports (except lectures, which are reproduced in the language given by the author).
There shall be four classes of members:
Candidates for regular scientific membership must be persons engaged in the investigation of chronobiology or cognate sciences and shall be proposed in writing to the Board by two regular scientific members of the Society. The application for membership shall include a list of the candidate's publications, including full bibliographic references.
Candidates for scientific membership should have received a doctoral degree or have had equivalent experience and training. They also must have published one substantive paper as the sole author or have been the senior author of at least one paper and a junior author of one or more substantial papers of joint authorship upon chronobiological or cognate subjects. Such papers must have appeared in print and must accompany the application. The Secretary will forward applications for membership to the membership committee of the Board and the candidate will become a member only after the application is ratified by the Board and the first year's dues are paid.
Section 1. Any individual, corporation or institution interested in chronobiology and in affording support to the Society, may become a fostering or advisory member upon invitation of the Board and the President of the Society. Fostering and Advisory Members hall be listed with the officers and other members of the Society. Unless they qualify also as regular scientific members, fostering and advisory members shall not be entitled to vote, hold office, or present papers or demonstrations at meetings of the Society.
Section 3. Student members must also be persons engaged in the investigation of chronobiological or cognate sciences and be proposed in writing to the Board by two members of the Society. It is not necessary for a student member to have published papers. Student members must be bonafide students and be vouched for by one of their teachers. Student members shall not be entitled to vote or hold office in the Society.
Section 4. Honorary members may be elected from among those who have distinguished themselves in chronobiological research. Nominations by the Board must be unanimous, and their proposal with reasons for recommendation shall be presented to the Society at a Biennial Business Meeting, a three-fourths vote of the members present and voting being necessary for an election.
Section 1. The dues of the Society shall be determined by the Board and ratified by the membership at each Biennial Business Meeting. A member in arrears for dues for two years shall forfeit membership in the Society but may be reinstated at the discretion of the Board on payment of arrears. Regular scientific members have to pay the full annual membership fee; student members have to pay one-half the regular fee; and fostering and advisory members have to pay at least twice the regular membership fee. Honorary members are exempt from payment of the membership fee.
Section 2. Any person who has been a regular dues-paying member for at least five years and who has attained retirement status, and who informs the Secretary of that fact, no longer will be required to pay dues.
Section 3. Two auditors shall be appointed by the President before each Biennial Business Meeting to examine the accounts of the Society. They do not have to be members of the Society.
Section 1. Fifty members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at the Biennial Business Meeting.
Section 2. Any change in the Constitution of the Society must be presented in writing at one biennial meeting in order to receive consideration and be acted upon at the next biennial meeting, due notice of the proposed change to be sent to each member at least one month in advance of the meeting at which such action is to be taken. In an emergency declared by the Board, the Constitution may be modified without delay or advance notice by a mail ballot if 70% of those members who return their ballots agree to the change and if the Board agrees unanimously.
Section 3. Rulings of the presiding officer shall be in accordance with Robert's Rules of Order.
Notwithstanding any provision of the Constitution which might be susceptible to a contrary construction:
Section 1. The Society shall be organized exclusively for scientific and educational purposes.
Section 2. The Society shall be operated exclusively for scientific and educational purposes.
Section 3. No part of the net earnings of the Society shall or may under any circumstances inure to the benefit of any private shareholder or individual.
Section 4. No substantial part of the activities of the Society shall consist of carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting to influence legislation.
Section 5. The Society shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distributing of statements), any political campaign on behalf of any candidate for public office.
Section 6. The Society shall not be organized or operated for profit.
Section 7. The Society shall not:
A. Lend any part of its income or corpus, without the receipt of adequate security and reasonable rate of interest to;
B. Pay any compensation, in excess of a reasonable allowance for salaries or other compensation for personal services actually rendered. to:
C. Make any part of its services available on a preferential basis to;
D. Make any purchase of securities or any other property, for more than adequate consideration in money's worth, from;
E. Sell any securities or other property for less than adequate consideration in money or money's worth to; or
F. Engage in any other transactions which result in substantial diversions of its income or corpus to: any officer, member of the Board, member or substantial contributor to the Society; or
G. Make such loans, payments, sales or purchases to anyone else, unless such authority be given or implied by other provisions of the Constitution.
Upon dissolution of the International Society for Chronobiology, the Board shall distribute the assets and accrued income to one or more organizations as determined by the Board, but such an organization or organizations shall have met the limitations prescribed in Sections I to 7 inclusive of Article VIII, immediately preceding.
Should any member of the Board be unable to complete his/her term of office, the Board shall have the power to appoint a replacement from the membership, who will serve the remainder of the term.
Amendment to Article V, Section 4 (1995): The membership category "Associate Member" will be deleted.